The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is one of the international organizations attaching great importance to Competition Policy. After the work on restrictive business practices and discussions related to multilateral rules of conduct as to restrictive barriers to trade, the UN General Assembly adopted the Set of Multilaterally Agreed Equitable Principles and Rules for the Control of Restrictive Business Practices (Set of Principles and Rules) in 1980.

The Set of Principles and Rules is being reviewed each year by the Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Competition Law and Policy, and every five years by the UN Review Conferences. On November 14-18, 2005, The Fifth United Nations Conference on the Review of All Aspects of the Set of Principles and Rules was organized in Antalya.

Assisting developing countries and countries in transition in the work of adopting and implementing competition rules is among the major activities of the UNCTAD. The UNCTAD offers technical assistance, and tries to help these countries enhance their capacities in these matters. One of the activities of the UNCTAD in this context is the Model Law on Competition.